There are many brilliant violinists around today, and tomorrow I will share with you my five favourite modern day violinists. But all of these violinists are built on the shoulders of the greats who came before them. The Romantic Period of Western art music (1830-1900) produced the greatest violin compositions. However, it is in the 20th Century that the best violin performances dominated. These giants still influence modern thought and stylistic interpretation. Today I want to share with you my five favourite Historical Violinists. And thanks to the wonderful world that is YouTube, we have live recordings and performances of all of them.
Historical Violinists number 5 – Ginette Neveu
Coming in at number five of my top Five Historical Violinists is the greatest violinist that you’ve never heard of. Ginette Neveu was a French violinist. Born in 1919, Neveu played the Bruch Violin Concerto number 1 at the Salle Gaveu in Paris at the age of seven for her solo debut. She also performed Mendelssohn’s Violin Concerto with the Colonne Orchestra that same year. At the age of 9, she won the École Supérieure de Musique and the City of Paris Prix d’Honneur. She then went to the Conservatoire de Paris, and studied with Juled Boucherit, George Enescu, Nadia Boulanger and Carl Flesch.
At Age 15, Neveu won the Henryk Wieniawski Violin Competition. Here, she beat David Oistrakh, aged 27 at the time, in both the preliminary round and the final. Following this, Neveu performed all over the world thanks to an extensive touring contract. She recorded the Sibelius Violin Concerto, which remains her most highly praise work, to which Sibelius said
A life cut short
The reason you’ve likely never heard of Neveu is that her life was tragically cut short. She gave her last concert in Paris on 20 October 1949. One week later, on a flight from Paris to New York, the plane crashed into a mountain after two failed attempts to land at Santa Maria Airport in the Axores. All 48 people died, including her brother Jean Neveu. Only the scroll of her Omobono Stradivari violin has been found.
Historical Violinists number 4 – David Oistrakh
Number four in my Top Five Historical Violinists is the violinist Neuveu beat in competition, David Oistrakh. Ukrainian born in 1908 into a Jewish Family, David Oistrakh started learning the violin and the viola at the age of five under Pyotr Stolyarsky. First, he performed his debut concert at the age of six. He entered the Odessa Conservatory in 1923, graduating in 1926. The following year, he relocated to Moscow and performed extensively. By 1934, he was teaching at the Moscow Conservatory, where he would be made professor in 1939.
During World War II, Oistrakh would be highly active within the Soviet Union, premiering now works by Khachaturian and Prokofiev. During the final years of the war, Oistrakh struck up a blossoming friendship with Shostakovich. This would see two violin concertos and a violin sonata dedicated to Oistrakh by Shostakovich. Subsequently, Oistrakh premiered all of these works and they became firmly associated with him. Oistrakh wasn’t allowed to perform abroad by the Societ Union. Consequently, he continued to teach in Moscow. Oistrakh would also visit the front lines of the war to perform for soldiers and factory workers under difficult conditions.
Touring the West, Europe and the US
After the war, Oistrakh was finally allowed to travel. His first concert in the west was in Helsinki in 1949. Oistrakh then toured around Europe and was eventually allowed to visit the United States in 1955. By 1959, he started establishing a second career as a conductor. After conducting a cycle of Brahms with the Concertgebouw Orchestra, Oistrakh died from his second heart attack in Amsterdam in 1974.
There are many great recordings available, but I can’t go past this box set of Oistrakh’s complete EMI Recordings. And there are many live performances on YouTube, but I’ve chosen his performance of the Shostakovich Violin Concerto Number 1.
Historical Violinists number 3 – Fritz Kreisler
Coming in at number three in my Top Five Historical Violinists is Austrian born violinist and composer, Fritz Kreisler. Born in 1875, Kreisler was almost a medical doctor. However, he thankfully returned to become one of the greatest violinists of all time. His sweet tone and expressive phrasing made his playing extremely characteristic.
Kreisler studied at the Vienna Conservatory under Anton Bruckner, Jakob Dont and Joseph Hellmesberger Jr. Later in Paris he studied under Léo Delibes, Lambert Massart and Jules Massenet. He won the Premier Grand Prix de Rome gold medal at age 12. His United States debut was held in 1888, followed by a US Tour with Moriz Rosenthal until 1889. Upon his return to Austria, his application for a position with the Vienna Philharmonic was unsuccessful. As such, Kreisler left music to study medicine. However, he returned to music in 1899, giving a concert with the Berlin Philharmonic. It was this concert, along with a series of American tours from 1901-1903, that brought him real acclaim.
Kreisler commissioned Elgar to write a violin concerto for him, and gave the premiere in 1910. He served in the Austrian Army during World War I. Kreisler received an honourable discharge after being wounded. He arrived in New York in November 1914. In 1924, he returned to Europe, first living in Berlin then France. After the outbreak of World War II, he returned to the US where he remained for the rest of his life.
Violinist and composer
Along with his performances, Kreisler was a talented composer. He wrote many pieces for the Violin and Piano, often in the style of other composers. He originally ascribed these pieces to these composers, but later revealed that it was he that had written them.
I’ve had for a long time his recordings of the Beethoven Sonatas. I also have two different recordings he made of the Beethoven and Mendelssohn violin concerti. The first was made in 1926 with the Berlin State Opera Orchestra. The second was recorded in 1935-36 with the London Philharmonic Orchestra with John Barbirolli and Landon Ronald. It’s interesting to compare the two recordings and see how it has developed over the ten years.
Perhaps of all his compositions, the most famous is Liebesfreud and Liebesleid. These were originally falsely attributed to Joseph Lanner. Unfortunately, I was unable to find any live vision of Kreisler playing. However, here is a recording of Kreisler playing his composition, Liebesfreud.
Historical Violinists number 2 – Jascha Heifetz
Possibly a controversial choice for my runner up in the Top Five Historical Violinists is the violinist many consider the greatest of all time, Jascha Heifetz. Born in the Russian Empire (later Lithuania) in 1901, Heifetz started playing the violin before he was two years old. He started lessons with Elias Malkin at age four. At the age of seven, Heifetz played the Mendelssohn concerto for his public debut. At age 9, he entered the Saint Petersburg Conservatory to study under Ovanes Nalbandian, and later Leopold Auer. In 1912, Heifetz met Kreisler for the first time at a private press matinee. Here, Heifetz played the Mendelssohn Violin Concerto, to which Kreisler said,
After performing with the Berlin Philharmonic in 1914, the conductor Arthur Nikisch said he had never heard such an excellent violinist.
Heifetz and his family left Russia in 1917, arriving in San Francisco. On October 27, 1917, Heifetz performed at Carnegie Hall for the first time. Violinist Mischa Elman was in the audience. Elman said to pianist Leopold Godowski “Do you think it’s hot in here?” To which Godowski replied “Not for pianists.”
Recording and Commissioning legacy
Shortly after his Carnegie Hall Debut, Heifetz made his first recordings for RCA Victor. Heifetz would remain with them for most of his career. His recordings are highly distinctive. Itzhak Perlman said Heifetz preferred to record relatively close to the microphone. This would give the recording a somewhat different tone quality than a concert hall performance.
Heifetz commissioned a number of pieces, including Walton’s Violin Concerto, during World War II, and also arranged a number of pieces. He has a huge recording legacy. Heifetz had a partially successful operation on his right shoulder in 1972. After this operation, he ceased giving public performances. Instead, Heifetz taught extensively at UCLA, the University of Southern California, and from his home in Beverly Hills. You can get a DVD of the complete collection of Master Classes that Heifetz taught as USC.
There are many great performances of Heifetz on YouTube. However, I couldn’t go past his performance of the Bach Chaconne recorded in 1970.
Historical Violinists number 1 – Yehudi Menuhin
Now I’m sure there will be many people who are upset that I put Menuhin in the number 1 spot ahead of Heifetz in my list of Top Five Historical Violinists. And that’s fine. If you want to make your own list of historical violinists, go ahead and do it. But this is my list, and this is the violinist that I’m choosing to put at the top of the historical violinists. My last teacher was a student of Menuhin, so I have a linkage there.
Menuhin was born in America to a family of Lithuanian Jews. He started learning to play the violin at age four, showing exceptional talent. He performed as a soloist with the San Francisco Symphony Orchestra in 1923 as his first public performance. Following this performance, Louis Persinger agreed to teach him and and accompanied him on his first few recordings.
The Menuhins eventually moved to Paris. Persinger recommended that Menuhin study with his old teacher, Eugène Ysayë, however they didn’t click. Instead, Menuhin studied with Romanian composer and violinist George Enescu, and later with Adolf Busch.
Starting a Long Recording Legacy
Menuhin recorded the Bruch G minor Concerto in 1931 as his first concerto recording. He followed that up with Elgar’s Concerto in B minor, with Elgar conducting in 1932. He then recorded the Paganini D major concerto in 1934. Then, between 1934 and 1936, Menuhin recorded the first complete recording of the Sonatas and Partitas for Solo Violin by J.S. Bach. Menuhin commissioned a work by Béla Bartók due to Menuhin’s interest in Bartók’s work. Bartók produced the Sonata for Solo Violin, a work that ended being the composer’s penultimate composition.
Menuhin played for Allied soldiers during World War II, and alongside English Composer Benjamin Britten, performed for surviving inmates of a number of concentration camps in July 1945. He also returned to Germany in 1947 to perform with the Berlin Philharmonic. In doing so, He was the first Jewish musician to do so in the wake of the Holocaust. Menuhin’s aim for these performances was to reconciliate and rehabilitate Germany’s music and spirit.
Broadening musical horizons
Menuhin didn’t limit his musical interest to the classical repertoire. He partnered with master sitar player Ravi Shankar, in a number of performances. This included commissioning a piece by composer Alan Hovhaness that is the earliest known work for sitar and western symphony orchestra. Menuhin also worked with jazz violinist Stéphane Grappelli in the 1970s, releasing an album together of 1930s classics.
He has a massive catalogue of recorded works, having been signed to EMI for almost 70 years. As such, there are two massive box sets of his recordings. Firstly, there is a 51-CD retrospective titled Yehudi Menuhin: The Great EMI Recordings that was released in 2009. Secondly, there is an 80-CD collection released in 2016, the centenary of Menuhin’s birth, titled The Menuhin Century.
There are many performances on YouTube, I’ve selected a performance of the Brahms Violin Concerto.
So there are my selections. Do you agree? Do you disagree? Who is your favourite?